Depending on its source, natural water can have different properties in terms of its corrosivity and scaling tendency. The substances absorbed by the water during its passage through soil have the biggest impact on this.
Geological formations, agricultural land-use and substances emitted into the air also play an essential role. In many cases, substances found in the water necessitate the treatment of the water at its source.
Typical preparation steps are the deferrization and demanganesation (removing iron and manganese) of the water, as well as using chlorine for hygienic treatment. When treating surface water, flocculation and filtration are also key, as both suspended and dissolved impurities must be removed at this point.
Depending on the application, additional preparation steps such as softening, the complete desalination of the water, the adjustment of the pH level of the water and the addition of inhibitors must also be carried out.